Tafsir of Surah Al-Qadr(Power) – Chapter 97

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

(1. Verily, We have sent it down in the Night of Al-Qadr.) (2. And what will make you know what the Night of Al-Qadr is) (3. The Night of Al-Qadr is better than a thousand months.) (4. Therein descend the angels and the Ruh by their Lord’s permission with every matter.) (5. There is peace until the appearance of dawn.)

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The Virtues of the Night of Al-Qadr (the Decree)

Allah informs that He sent the Qur’an down during the Night of Al-Qadr, and it is a blessed night about which Allah says,

(We sent it down on a blessed night.) (44:3) This is the Night of Al-Qadr and it occurs during the month of Ramadan. This is as Allah says,

(The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an.) (2:185) Ibn `Abbas and others have said, “Allah sent the Qur’an down all at one time from the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz) to the House of Might (Baytul-`Izzah), which is in the heaven of this world. Then it came down in parts to the Messenger of Allah based upon the incidents that occurred over a period of twenty-three years.” Then Allah magnified the status of the Night of Al-Qadr, which He chose for the revelation of the Mighty Qur’an, by His saying,

(And what will make you know what the Night of Al-Qadr is The Night of Al-Qadr is better than a thousand months.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah “When Ramadan would come, the Messenger of Allah would say,

(Verily, the month of Ramadan has come to you all. It is a blessed month, which Allah has obligated you all to fast. During it the gates of Paradise are opened, the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are shackled. In it there is a night that is better than one thousand months. Whoever is deprived of its good, then he has truly been deprived.)” An-Nasa’i recorded this same Hadith. Aside from the fact that worship during the Night of Al-Qadr is equivalent to worship performed for a period of one thousand months, it is also confirmed in the Two Sahihs from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever stands (in prayer) during the Night of Al-Qadr with faith and expecting reward (from Allah), he will be forgiven for his previous sins.)

The Descent of the Angels and the Decree for Every Good during the Night of Al-Qadr.

(Therein descend the angels and the Ruh by their Lord’s permission with every matter.) meaning, the angels descend in abundance during the Night of Al-Qadr due to its abundant blessings. The angels descend with the descending of blessings and mercy, just as they descend when the Qur’an is recited, they surround the circles of Dhikr (remembrance of Allah) and they lower their wings with true respect for the student of knowledge. In reference to Ar-Ruh, it is said that here it means the angel Jibril. Therefore, the wording of the Ayah is a method of adding the name of the distinct object (in this case Jibril) separate from the general group (in this case the angels). Concerning Allah’s statement, (with every matter.) Mujahid said, “Peace concerning every matter.” Sa`id bin Mansur said, `Isa bin Yunus told us that Al-A`mash narrated to them that Mujahid said concerning Allah’s statement,

(There is peace) “It is security in which Shaytan cannot do any evil or any harm.” Qatadah and others have said, “The matters are determined during it, and the times of death and provisions are measured out (i.e., decided) during it.” Allah says,

(Therein is decreed every matter of decree.) (44:4) Then Allah says,

(There is peace until the appearance of dawn.) Sa`id bin Mansur said, “Hushaym narrated to us on the authority of Abu Ishaq, who narrated that Ash-Sha`bi said concerning Allah’s statement,

(With every matter, there is a peace until the appearance of dawn.) `The angels giving the greetings of peace during the Night of Al-Qadr to the people in the Masjids until the coming of Fajr (dawn).”’ Qatadah and Ibn Zayd both said concerning Allah’s statement,

(There is peace.) “This means all of it is good and there is no evil in it until the coming of Fajr (dawn).”

Specifying the Night of Decree and its Signs

This is supported by what Imam Ahmad recorded from `Ubadah bin As-Samit that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The Night of Al-Qadr occurs during the last ten (nights). Whoever stands for them (in prayer) seeking their reward, then indeed Allah will forgive his previous sins and his latter sins. It is an odd night: the ninth, or the seventh, or the fifth, or the third or the last night (of Ramadan).) The Messenger of Allah also said,

(Verily, the sign of the Night of Al-Qadr is that it is pure and glowing as if there were a bright, tranquil, calm moon during it. It is not cold, nor is it hot, and no shooting star is permitted until morning. Its sign is that the sun appears on the morning following it smooth having no rays on it, just like the moon on a full moon night. Shaytan is not allowed to come out with it (the sun) on that day.) This chain of narration is good. In its text there is some oddities and in some of its wordings there are things that are objectionable. Abu Dawud mentioned a section in his Sunan that he titled, “Chapter: Clarification that the Night of Al-Qadr occurs during every Ramadan.” Then he recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah was asked about the Night of Al-Qadr while I was listening and he said,

(It occurs during every Ramadan.)” The men of this chain of narration are all reliable, but Abu Dawud said that Shu`bah and Sufyan both narrated it from Ishaq and they both considered it to be a statement of the Companion (Ibn `Umar, and thus not the statement of the Prophet ). It has been reported that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said, “The Messenger of Allah performed I`tikaf during the first ten nights of Ramadan and we performed I`tikaf with him. Then Jibril came to him and said, `That which you are seeking is in front of you.’ So the Prophet performed I`tikaf during the middle ten days of Ramadan and we also performed I`tikaf with him. Then Jibril came to him and said; `That which you are seeking is ahead of you.’ So the Prophet stood up and gave a sermon on the morning of the twentieth of Ramadan and he said,

(Whoever performed I`tikaf with me, let him come back (for I`tikaf again), for verily I saw the Night of Al-Qadr, and I was caused to forget it, and indeed it is during the last ten (nights). It is during an odd night and I saw myself as if I were prostrating in mud and water.) The roof of the Masjid was made of dried palm-tree leaves and we did not see anything (i.e., clouds) in the sky. But then a patch of wind-driven clouds came and it rained. So the Prophet lead us in prayer until we saw the traces of mud and water on the forehead of the Messenger of Allah , which confirmed his dream.” In one narration it adds that this occurred on the morning of the twenty-first night (meaning the next morning). They both (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) recorded it in the Two Sahihs. Ash-Shafi`i said, “This Hadith is the most authentic of what has been reported.” It has also been said that it is on the twenty-third night due to a Hadith narrated from `Abdullah bin Unays in Sahih Muslim. It has also been said that it is on the twenty-fifth night due to what Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn `Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Seek it in the last ten (nights) of Ramadan. In the ninth it still remains, in the seventh it still remains, in the fifth it still remains.) Many have explained this Hadith to refer to the odd nights, and this is the most apparent and most popular explanation. It has also been said that it occurs on the twenty-seventh night because of what Muslim recorded in his Sahih from Ubay bin Ka`b that the Messenger of Allah mentioned that it was on the twenty-seventh night. Imam Ahmad recorded from Zirr that he asked Ubayy bin Ka`b, “O Abu Al-Mundhir! Verily, your brother Ibn Mas`ud says whoever stands for prayer (at night) the entire year, will catch the Night of Al-Qadr.” He (Ubayy) said, “May Allah have mercy upon him. Indeed he knows that it is during the month of Ramadan and that it is the twenty-seventh night.” Then he swore by Allah. Zirr then said, “How do you know that” Ubayy replied, “By a sign or an indication that he (the Prophet ) informed us of. It rises that next day having no rays on it — meaning the sun.” Muslim has also recorded it. It has been said that it is the night of the twenty-ninth. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded from `Ubadah bin As-Samit that he asked the Messenger of Allah about the Night of Decree and he replied,

(Seek it in Ramadan in the last ten nights. For verily, it is during the odd nights, the twenty-first, or the twenty-third, or the twenty-fifth, or the twenty-seventh, or the twenty-ninth, or during the last night.) Imam Ahmad also recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said about the Night of Al-Qadr,

(Verily, it is during the twenty-seventh or the twenty-ninth night. And verily, the angels who are on the earth during that night are more numerous than the number of pebbles.) Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith and there is nothing wrong with its chain of narration. At-Tirmidhi recorded from Abu Qilabah that he said, “The Night of Al-Qadr moves around (i.e., from year to year) throughout the last ten nights.” This view that At-Tirmidhi mentions from Abu Qilabah has also been recorded by Malik, Ath-Thawri, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ishaq bin Rahuyah, Abu Thawr, Al-Muzani, Abu Bakr bin Khuzaymah and others. It has also been related from Ash-Shafi`i, and Al-Qadi reported it from him, and this is most likely. And Allah knows best.

Supplication during the Night of Decree

It is recommended to supplicate often during all times, especially during the month of Ramadan, in the last ten nights, and during the odd nights of it even more so. It is recommended that one say the following supplication a lot: “O Allah! Verily, You are the Of the Pardoning, You love to pardon, so pardon me.” This is due to what Imam Ahmad recorded from `A’ishah, that she said, “O Messenger of Allah! If I find the Night of Al-Qadr what should I say” He replied,

(Say: “O Allah! Verily, You are the Of the Pardoning, You love to pardon, so pardon me.”) At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah have all recorded this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.” Al-Hakim recorded it in his Mustadrak (with a different chain of narration) and he said that it is authentic according to the criteria of the two Shaykhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim). An-Nasa’i also recorded it. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Laylat Al-Qadr, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.

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Surat An Nasr – Chapter 110

The Virtues of Surat An Nasr

It has been mentioned previously that it (Surat An-Nasr) is equivalent to one-fourth of the Qur’an and that Surat Az-Zalzalah is equivalent to one-fourth of the Qur’an. An-Nasa’i recorded from `Ubaydullah bin `Abdullah bin `Utbah that Ibn `Abbas said to him, “O Ibn `Utbah! Do you know the last Surah of the Qur’an that was revealed” He answered, “Yes, it was (When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.) (110:1)” He (Ibn `Abbas) He (Ibn `Abbas) said, “You have spoken truthfully.”

Surah An Nasr – Chapter 110

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

(1. When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.) (2. And you see that the people enter Allah’s religion in crowds.) (3. So, glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance and Who forgives.)

This Surah informs of the Completion of the Life of Allah’s Messenger

Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “Umar used to bring me into the gatherings with the old men of (the battle of) Badr. However, it was as if one of them felt something in himself (against my attending). So he said, `Why do you (`Umar) bring this (youth) to sit with us when we have children like him (i.e., his age)’ So `Umar replied, `Verily, he is among those whom you know. Then one day he called them and invited me to sit with them, and I do not think that he invited me to be among them that day except to show them. So he said, `What do you say about Allah’s statement,(When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.)’ Some of them said, `We were commanded to praise Allah and seek His forgiveness when He helps us and gives us victory.’ Some of them remained silent and did not say anything. Then he (`Umar) said to me, `Is this what you say, O Ibn `Abbas’ I said, `No.’ He then said, `What do you say’ I said, `It was the end of the life of Allah’s Messenger that Allah was informing him of. Allah said,(When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.) which means, that is a sign of the end of your life.

(So, glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance and Who forgives.)’ So, `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, `I do not know anything about it other than what you have said.”’ Al-Bukhari was alone in recording this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “When

(When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.) was revealed, the Messenger of Allah said,

(My death has been announced to me.) And indeed he died during that year.” Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith. Al-Bukhari recorded that `A’ishah said, “The Messenger of Allah used to say often in his bowing and prostrating, (Glory to You, O Allah, our Lord, and praise be to You. O Allah, forgive me.) He did this as his interpretation of the Qur’an (i.e., showing its implementation).” The rest of the group has also recorded this Hadith except for At-Tirmidhi. Imam Ahmad recorded from Masruq that `A’ishah said, “The Messenger of Allah used to often say towards the end of his life,

(Glory to Allah, and praise be unto Him. I seek Allah’s forgiveness and I repent to Him.) And he said,

(Verily, my Lord has informed me that I will see a sign in my Ummah and He has commanded me that when I see it, I should glorify His praises and seek His forgiveness, for He is the One Who accepts repentance. And indeed I have seen it (i.e., the sign). (When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest (Al-Fath). And you see that the people enter Allah’s religion in crowds. So glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance and Who forgives.))” Muslim also recorded this Hadith. The meaning of Al-Fath here is the conquest of Makkah, and there is only one view concerning it. For indeed the different areas of the Arabs were waiting for the conquest of Makkah before they would accept Islam. They said, “If he (Muhammad is victorious over his people, then he is a (true) Prophet.” So when Allah gave him victory over Makkah, they entered into the religion of Allah (Islam) in crowds. Thus, two years did not pass (after the conquest of Makkah) before the peninsula of the Arabs was laden with faith. And there did not remain any of the tribes of the Arabs except that they professed (their acceptance) of Islam. And all praise and blessings are due to Allah. Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that `Amr bin Salamah said, “When Makkah was conquered, all of the people rushed to the Messenger of Allah to profess their Islam. The various regions were delaying their acceptance of Islam until Makkah was conquered. The people used to say, `Leave him and his people alone. If he is victorious over them he is a (true) Prophet.”’ We have researched the war expedition for conquest of Makkah in our book As-Surah. Therefore, whoever wishes he may review it there. And all praise and blessings are due to Allah.Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu `Ammar that a neighbor of Jabir bin `Abdullah told him, “I returned from a journey and Jabir bin `Abdullah came and greeted me. So I began to talk with him about the divisions among the people and what they had started doing. Thus, Jabir began to cry and he said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds.)” This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Nasr, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.

Surah – 102 – Takaasur (Rivalry in Worldly Increase)

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

(1. The mutual increase diverts you,) (2. Until you visit the graves.) (3. Nay! You shall come to know!) (4. Again nay! You shall come to know!) (4. Again nay! You shall come to know!) (5. Nay! If you knew with a sure knowledge.) (6. Verily, you shall see the blazing Fire!) (7. And again, you shall see it with certainty of sight!) (8. Then on that Day you shall be asked about the delights!)

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The Result of Loving the World and Heedlessness of the Hereafter

Allah says that all are preoccupied by love of the world, its delights and its adornments, and this distracts you from seeking the Hereafter and desiring it. This delays you until death comes to you and you visit the graves, thus becoming its inhabitants. In Sahih Al-Bukhari, it is recorded in the Book of Ar-Riqaq (Narrations that soften the Heart) from Anas bin Malik, who reported that Ubayy bin Ka`b said, “We used to think that this was a part of the Qur’an until the Ayah was revealed which says;(The mutual increase diverts you.)” He was referring to the Hadith in which the Prophet said,

(If the Son of Adam had a valley of gold, he would desire another like it…) Imam Ahmad recorded from `Abdullah bin Ash-Shikhkhir that he said, “I came to the Messenger of Allah while he was saying,

((The mutual increase diverts you.)” He was referring to the Hadith in which the Prophet said,

(If the Son of Adam had a valley of gold, he would desire another like it…) Imam Ahmad recorded from `Abdullah bin Ash-Shikhkhir that he said, “I came to the Messenger of Allah while he was saying,

((The mutual increase diverts you.)( The Son of Adam says, “My wealth, my wealth.” But do you get anything (of benefit) from your wealth except for that which you ate and you finished it, or that which you clothed yourself with and you wore it out, or that which you gave as charity and you have spent it)” Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i also recorded this Hadith. Muslim recorded in his Sahih from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The servant says “My wealth, my wealth.” Yet he only gets three (benefits) from his wealth: that which he eats and finishes, that which he eats and finishes, that which he wears until it is worn out, or that which he gives in charity and it is spent. Everything else other than that will go away and leave him for the people.) Muslim was alone in recording this Hadith. Al-Bukhari recorded from Anas bin Malik that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Three things follow the deceased person, and two of them return while one remains behind with him. The things which follow him are his family, his wealth and his deeds. His family and his wealth return while his deeds remain.) This Hadith has also been recorded by Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i. Imam Ahmad recorded from Anas that the Prophet said,

(The Son of Adam becomes old with senility, but yet two things remain with him: greed and hope.) Both of them (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) recorded this Hadith in the Two Sahihs.

Source : Tafsir Ibn Kathir